Machu Picchu is a historical relic site of the ancient Incan city that is very beautiful. Machu Picchu is a word derived from Quwchua language, which means Old Mountain or some called the lost Inca city. This ancient city is located in the mountains of the Andes, Peru, with an altitude of 2,430 meters above sea level. More precise location is 70 km northwest of Cusco, above the valley of Urubamba.
According to the archaeologists, Machu Picchu is expected to be built, in 1450 until 1470, but abandoned for a hundred years later, when the Spanish conquered the Inca empire. In 1911 this historical sites is discovered by an archaeologist professor from Yale University, Hiram Bingham III. At the time Bingham was looking for Vilcabamba, the last bastion that has not recovered from the Inca empire. When discovered Machu Picchu, Bingham thought he had found Vilcabamba.
Then the Peruvian government tried to maintain the historic site again, by taking legally artifacts are already under by Bingham from the site. Government policy was conducted in 2007, with the achievement of an agreement with Yale University.
Ancient city of Machu Picchu, built by the ancient Incan architectural style, which uses a polygonal shaped polished stone wall. The buildings that located at this place built with high accuracy. Machu Picchu has 140 buildings including churches, parks, housing and defensive walls. Each building is connected with stone walkways and stairs. The main building are Intihuatana, Temple of the Sun and Three Window Room. These places are called the Sacred District of Machu Picchu.
Machu Picchu is divided into three areas, namely agriculture, urban, and religion. The structure of the buildings are very organized in such a way that the function of the building in accordance with the shape that environment. Incas planted crops such as potatoes and maize at Machu Picchu. To get the most, they use farming methods that sufficiently advanced terracing and irrigation, to reduce erosion and increase the cultivation area.
Their agricultural drainage and terracing take advantage of the natural hillside. Existing building area occupied by the farmers, teachers, children, and priests. The most important religious area is located on a hilltop, overlooking the Urubamba valley which is very fertile.
One unique thing about Machu Picchu is its architectural landscape. Formation of stone used in construction of structures, sculptures, reservoirs, and temples hang on steep cliffs. So is the form of roofs made of straw, doors and windows are trapezoidal in shape, is something unique.
In 1983, Machu Picchu approved as World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Since then, Machu Picchu became a tourist attraction that is very attractive for tourists. The tourists and explorers can down the road by using the Inca Trail. Views of temples, fields, terraces, and the bathroom seemed to bring tourists into the past. The combination of hills and artefacts is seen as a green paradise smooth and elegant. Because of its beauty, Machu Picchu could even be said as the most popular tourist attractions in Peru for the moment.