History name of the month in AD calendar

After Domino (AD) calendar as we know it is divided in 12 months and each month has a name, starting from January to December. Giving the name of the month through the historical process in many years and also happens rectification several times. Giving the name of that month began in ancient Rome. Here is the history of the names of the month.


The beginning
Beginning of the month names in the ancient Roman is aimed timepiece for agriculture, which is the people’s livelihood at that time. At first, people know the name of the month there were only 10. During this period not all the days included in the calendar month, because there are some days which is the winter, where farmers can not grow crops, so those days not include as the name of the month. Rest of the day which is a winter that is not included in the calendar, total are 61 days. At the time, calendar were carved in stone and then the stones were sent to the colonies of ancient Rome. This was the name of the tenth month in the ancient Roman.

  1. Martius (consisting of 31 days)
  2. Aprilis (consisting of 30 days)
  3. Maius (consisting of 31 days)
  4. Junius (consisting of 30 days)
  5. Quintilis (consisting of 31 days)
  6. Sextilis (consisting of 30 days)
  7. Septalis (consisting of 31 days)
  8. Octolis (consisting of 31 days)
  9. Novelist (consisting of 30 days)
  10. Decemberis (consisting of 31 days)

Then there is a man named Numa Numae Pompilus who do a bit of calendar reform. That man was the first to establish Pontiface Institutions or the Head of Religion, thus requiring a calendar that can be used as a benchmark to perform religious ceremonies.

So the calendar needs at that time not only for agriculture but also for the religious. Numa Numae Pompilus want to have a benchmark when is exactly 2 weeks before winter ends. Because at that time they will hold a ritual ceremony to welcome spring. At last month added two new month names, Ianuarius consisting of 29 days and Februarius consisting of 28 days.

  1. Martius (consisting of 31 days)
  2. Aprilis (consisting of 29 days)
  3. Maius (consisting of 31 days)
  4. Junius (consisting of 29 days)
  5. Quintilis (consisting of 31 days)
  6. Sextilis (consisting of 29 days)
  7. September (consisting of 29 days)
  8. October (consisting of 31 days)
  9. November (consisting of 29 days)
  10. December (consisting of 29 days)
  11. Ianuarius (consisting of 29 days)
  12. Februarius (consisting of 28 days)

After these changes, the number of days in a year to 355 days. In the science of the Roman calendar system is based on observations of society about appearance of the moon and sun. Roman is also based on the Greek calendar in their calendar. Whereas the Greek calendar calculations based on the appearance of Sirius star constellation, not by the moon and sun.

Different benchmarks will eventually make the calculation of the calendar became an ambiguous and out of sync. The astronomer who noticed the motion of the sun, moon and constellations find inaccuracies calculation day, so they made the thirteen months called Marcedonius.

Marcedonius consists of 27 days, so that in one year there were 378 days. Marcedonius month will be inserted in every two years. So, if averaged over every two years, at one year consists of 366 days which is equal to 1 year of solar year.

At that time, the insertion Marcedonius month is the right Pntifex Maximus. However, for political reasons often misuse the insertion of the name of that month, which is mostly used to extend the term of office or power. Even months Marcedonius can be inserted up to two, three or four times a year in a row, only then the next year is not added. Finally in the year 45 BC, Julius Caesar revised the calendar again into twelve, similar to what we know today.

  1. Ianuarius
  2. Februarius
  3. Martius
  4. Aprilis
  5. Maius
  6. Iunius
  7. Quintilis
  8. Sextilis
  9. September
  10. October
  11. November
  12. December

January was chosen as the first month because it is taken from the name of the Roman god, Janus. Janus was the god of the gatekeepers of Olympus, so the name of the month is interpreted as a gateway to the new year. On January 1st is the peak of winter. At that time Consul elections were held and all the holiday activities. The senate assembled to select the Consul. In February, the consul who was elected blessed in a ceremony to welcome the spring, which means welcome novelty.

AD calendar on the present
At the time of Julius Caesar has also been known that the true one year is 365 1 / 4 days, not 366 days as previously known. On the basis of these calculations, Julius Caesar ordered his guards calendar to add one additional day in the fourth year. The calculation of the calendar runs until today, where on average one year consists of 365 days, but once in every four years there is a leap year, which consists of 366 days.

3 thoughts on “History name of the month in AD calendar

  • at

    Hi, really like the appearance of ones website. And the content like this AD calendar, good very good knowledge!

  • at

    All right, the previous name of the month is better than today. That for me 🙂

  • at

    Fine knowledge! How about give your tittle blog with “Now I know” 😉


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